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Sociedade Brasileira de Telecomunicações

Mode-dependent Loss and Gain Emulation in Coupled SDM Transmission

Space-division multiplexing (SDM) is currently the only solution to cope with the exponential growth of data traffic in optical transmission networks. The performance of long-haul SDM transmission is fundamentally limited by mode-dependent loss (MDL) and mode-dependent gain (MDG) generated in components and amplifiers. To enable the study of MDL/MDG effects in SDM systems as well as MDL/MDG estimation methods within the context of experimental setups, we evaluate an MDL/MDG emulator based on variable optical attenuators (VOAs) and photonic lanterns. We assess MDL/MDG emulation in different attenuation scenarios and demonstrate the capability of the emulator to artificially introduce a wide range of MDL/MDG in a short-reach 3-mode transmission system.

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